All styles are appropriate, depending on the situation.


  • Identifies a problem, considers alternative solutions, chooses one, and then tells the group what they are to do.
  • Members’ views may be considered, but they do not participate directly in the decision-making.



  • Makes the decision after consideration of organizational goals and group member’s interests.  Although the idea is “sold,” it can be decided even if not “bought.”
  • Explains to the group how the problem or task can be resolved or accomplished.
  • Uses persuasion to carry out the decision.



  • Identifies a problem and proposes a tentative solution.
  • Asks for the reactions of those who will implement it.
  • Leader makes the final decision after considering the reactions.



  • Presents a problem and relevant background information.
  • Invites the group to increase the number of alternative actions to be considered. 
  • Leader selects the solution she/he regards as most promising from among those emerging during group discussions.



  • Participates in the discussion as a member and agrees in advance to carry out whatever decision the group makes.
  • May make a decision to make no decision.